Director's Corner.  Greetings and salutations from the desk of Executive Director, Mrs. Wilhelmina P. Johnson (below). This is the fifth in a series of publications called the Director's Corner highlighting our programs, activites, and events of 2017' with second and third quarter newsletters combined in this edition.


Mrs. Wilhelmina P. Johnson

Executive Director - CRC INC.


 Celebrating 44-years. The 2017' year began with noting a major milestone in our organization's history. For 44-years, CRC INC. has provided services to our community, our city, our county, our state, and our beloved country.  CRC INC. began with the mandate to unearth the contributions of African-Americans within our county during our country's 1976' Bicentennial Celebration.  Since its inception, one of our CORE Beliefs is "Historical Documentation and Preservation".   This Director's Corner second quarter will reflect on the former S.C. Senator Kay Patterson's Historical Marker Event, the 31st Annual Darlington County Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Celebration, 142nd Anniversary of Dr. Mary Mcleod Bethune's Birth, Reconstruction 1865 - 1877 Series, 40 Acres and a Mule - Field Order 15 - Part I, and many others:


   Former S.C. Senator Kay Patterson receives Historical Marker.  On December 11, 2016, in the Round O Community of Darlington County, a historical marker was unveiled in the presence of well-wishers and attendees at Round O Missionary Baptist Church.  A journey that began on January 11, 1931, for Senator Kay Patterson, a Democratic member of the South Carolina Senate, representing the 19th District from 1985 until his retirement in 2008.  He was previously a member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1975 through 1985.  Former Senator Patterson holds the distinction of being the second African-American to be elected to the S.C. Senate since the Reconstruction Era.  He followed the distinguished S.C. Civil Rights Leader I. DeQuincey Newman, being the first, to be seated in the S.C. Senate since 1888' during an at-large election in 1985'.  Both hold the distinction of having been born and reared in Darlington County.


Figure 1.  Former Richland County Senator Kay Patterson (right) with well-wisher Ronald Joseph.

  Photo courtesy of Darlington County Historical Museum of Ethnic Culture



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  Patterson, the son of James and Leila (Prince) Patterson, was raised in Darlington and Sumter Counties by his grandmothers, Mrs. Meta B. Patterson and Mrs. Emma Joseph. He graduated from Lincoln High in Sumter, South Carolina, in 1949. Senator Patterson attended Claflin College in 1949-1951. After serving in the United States Marine Corps from 1951 to 1953 as sergeant, he completed requirements for the baccalaureate degree in Social Sciences at Allen University in 1956. He furthered his  education at Temple University and attended an NDEA Institute in Black History at Atlanta University in 1963.  Afterward, he received the Masters of Education Degree from South Carolina State College in 1971.


  Senator Patterson taught for fourteen years at W. A. Perry Middle School, C. A. Johnson Preparatory Academy, and Benedict College, and served for 16 years as a UniServ Representative for the South Carolina Education Association, from which he retired in June 1986. He is a member of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church where he has served as Senior Warden of the Vestry and Secretary and Treasurer of the Vestry.


  During his tenure of public service, Senator Patterson was active in many civic and community organizations which included the North Columbia Civic Club and life membership in the NAACP.  While a student at Claflin College (1949–1951), he joined the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and Edisto Lodge No. 39 Prince-Hall Masons. He served as a Commissioner on the Education Commission of the States, is a member of the State Reorganization Commission, and a former member of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). In January 1983, he was elected by the S. C. House Education Committee to serve on the University of South Carolina Trustee Board, the first Black to serve on the Board since Reconstruction. Senator Patterson has been an outspoken legislator championing the cause of the poor and downtrodden. He was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1974, and to the Senate in 1985. In 1990, he served as Chairman of the South Carolina Legislative Black Caucus.


  As an outspoken and fiery speaker in his practice of politics, he was a moving force in promoting and effectuating change in the state of South Carolina. He often unveiled and denounced the often deguised slogans used by the White Southern Strategists "to motivate their followers into action" with those of his own such as Kick -a-Nigger-Politics which in today's Trump-era would be  "The Good Old Days".  In 2008, Senator Kay Patterson retired from the Political landscape. However eight years after his retirement in 2016', Senator Kay Patterson was sought out by his former colleagues on the S.C. Congressional Black Caucus and awarded the inaugural Senator Clementa C. Pinckney Award  in honoring their struggle to remove the Confederate Flag from the State Capital Grounds that began 1983'.


  Senator Patterson is married to Jean James of Pinewood, South Carolina, has two children — Eric and Pamela, and a grandson Eric, Jr., and granddaughters, Ashley and Courtland.


 U.S. Army Green Berets honors President John F. Kennedy With 50th Anniversary Wreath.  Over 50-years ago, on November 25, 1963, Sergeant Major Francis Ruddy, a Special Forces Soldier, laid his "Green Beret" upon the grave of the fallen president.  Nearly, 50-years later, Soldiers of the Green Berets gathered at Kennedy's grave site, on Nov. 17, 2011, to once again honor the man who lauded the Army's Special Forces.  A tradition that continued until the late 1980s with the purpose to re-establish  a tradition that began when the Kennedy Family requested a contingent of Green Berets to perform as Honor Guard for President Kennedy's Funeral.  President Kennedy authorized the "Green Beret" as the official headgear of the U.S. Army Special Forces after a visit to Fort Bragg, N.C. in 1961 as well as a school bearing his name  - United States Arny John F. Kenney Special Warfare Center and School.  Soldiers from the Green Beret gathered at Kennedy's Grave Site, figure 2, as Secretary of the Army, John McHugh, Brigadier General Edward M. Reeder, Jr., Commander, U.S. Army Special Forces Command, and 2nd Lt. Christopher Kennedy McKelvy, great nephew of the fallen President, laid a wreath at Kennedy's grave in a ceremony to honor the fallen president's commitment to the Special Forces Soldier, figure 3.


                                                            Figure 2.  U.S. Army Special Forces Soldiers.


Figure 3.  Secretary of Army Lays Wreath at President Kennedy's Gravesite.



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31st Annual Darlington County Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.  Memorial Celebration Op-Ed.  Four days have passed since the 2017' Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Holiday and we now have a new President; Donald Trump. President Trump stampeded to victory on the campaign slogan - "Make America Great, Again". Few of us, of color that is, in the South understood what this truly meant beyond the white evangelical circle and the Southern Strategists. And fewer understood where it all began. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. sought to put the question to paper in his famous letter from Birmingham Jail stating..."I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward.  I have beheld the impressive outlines of her massive religious-education buildings. Over and over I have found myself asking: "What kind of people worship here? Who is their God?" Since the inception of America, the First Baptist Church Alliance of the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), its military, political, and media arms have egregiously warred against a defenseless people they once enslaved. Prompting former Governor of S.C. Wade Hampton to remark of "their (our) blessed generosity" only to find himself on the way out, minus a leg, never to return to S.C. after his Governership and U.S. Senatorial Tenure ended.  The State Newspaper Editor and Founder; Narcisco G. Gonzales, figure 4, was assassinated by then Lieutenant Governor James H. Tillman in 1903', nephew of former S.C. Governor Ben Tillman. Gonzales was a staunch critic of the governor, his racist policies, and his sponsorship of terrorism, i.e., the Red Shirts, KKK, to intimidate African-Americans, both politically and economically.


Figure 4.  Narcisco G. Gonzales - State Newspaper Founder and Editor.


 During the 1895' State Constitution Convention, Beaufort Senator Robert Smalls stated the south had murdered over 53,000 African-American from 1865-1895, harming the economic viability and sustainability of the region. Yet...over a 130 years later in the mid-90s, the SBC “apologized” for its reign of terror, murder, false accusations, and imprisonment of African-Americans. Why?? For free labor!!!  One of the Souths most infamous programs was the Convict Leasing Program (CLP) which began during the 1870s to re-enslave African-Americans in order to recover the South's depleted financial coffers. Today, the CLP has mushroomed into the Prison Industrial Complex where 1out 4 individuals within the free world are incarcerated here in America. Largely, for financial gain by both State Governments and US Corporations! Was this a false confession by the SBC? Yet, 21 years after the latest school suit v. the state of S.C., the I-95 Corridor of Shame is largely devoid of economic investment for  funding because these areas are largely settled by African-Americans in the state's old slavery corridor.  In saying this, former S.C. Governor Nikki Haley insured a long standing policy of economic denial continued under her tenure as she posits herself to be the next U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. 70-years after Briggs v. Elliott, the I-95 Corridor of Shame Schools are still under-funded while the state’s charter school system is being funded by  the state of S.C. to the staggering amount of $350,000,000 with marginal results as of today!!!  Where is the outcry against all these injustices!!!!!  As hinted previously, the state of S.C. largest employer is the penal system.Yet, few know that this creation is of the SBC, which has built a blood-stained structure upon the honored corner stone, and its not the blood of Jesus Christ, either, but those of African-Americans, other minorities, and people of good-will. Yet, the hopeful continue to wait and pray, and hope, but in hoping, do not surrender one's principles as Dr. King would warn. 


 In closing, Pastor Calvin Daniel of New Hopewell Baptist Church provided a dire warning that the Church in America has been AWOL-Absence Without Official Leave - and because of its ungodly behavior and bloodletting, judgement must be rendered by God or He has to repent for what He has done to Israel. And as the Prophet Amos stated, Let Justice roll down like water and righteous like a mighty stream. Yet where is this hunger within His people for both "His" justice and "His" righteousness???  Question..are we truly seeking His Kingdom and His Righteousness?  I would have to say least in part.  In either case, Let Justice roll down like water and righteousness like a mighty stream. PMJ


*  How did we get here?  See 13th Amendment Documentary Clip by Ava DuVernay, [click here].


  Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune's 142nd Anniversary of Her Birth. On July 10, 2017, the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) celebrated the 142nd Anniversary of her birth. Born Mary Jane McLeod Bethune; July 10, 1875 - May 18, 1855, in Mayesville, S.C., Dr. Bethune was an educator, stateswoman, philanthropist, humanitatian, and civil rights activist best known for starting a private school for African-American Students in Daytona Beach, Florida and being the "First Lady of The Struggle because of her commitment to better the lives for all African-Americans.


  Born to parents who had been slaves, she started working the fields with her family at the age of five as one of 17 children.  She took an early interest in becoming educated, the only one in her family, when a missionary opened a school nearby for African-American Children. She later received a scholarship to attend Scotia Seminary, now Barber-Scotia College, a school for girls in Concord, N.C.  After graduating from seminary in 1893, she attended Dwight Moody's Institute for Home and Foreign Missions, known today as the Moody Bible Institute, in Chicago, Il.  Dr. Bethune completed her studies in two years and afterward returned to S.C. to begin her career as a Teacher.




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   Over the next decade, Dr. Bethune worked as an educator, marrying fellow Teacher Albertus Bethune in 1898 where the couple had one son, Albert McLeod Bethune.  In 1904, she founded the Daytone Normal and Industrial Institute, which today is called Bethune-Cookman University, which she served as President until 1942. During this period, she was active in women's clubs and civic organizations as well as becoming a national leader of her people.  After working on the presidential campaign for Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932, she was invited to be a member of his Black Cabinet, figure 5.


  In addition to her school work, she advised the President on concerns of African-Americans and helped share his message and achievements with her people, who had historically, been Republican Voters since the Civil War.  At this time, African-Americans had been largely disenfranchised; both politically and economically, throughout the South since the end of the 19th Century where her mesage was stifled. She began to encourage herself to look elsewhere. Thus, she began speaking to African-Americans across the North of her vision of hope for her people.  Upon her death, columnist Louis E. Martin said, "She gave out faith and hope as if they were pills."



Figure 5.  Iconic Photo of Dr. Mary Mcleod Bethune in front of the  

Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C.



   Honors included the designation of her home in Daytona Beach as a National Historic Landmark, her house in Washington, D.C. as a National Historical Site, the installation of a memorial sculpture of her in Lincoln Park in Washington, D.C., and a Park in Mayesville, S.C., figure 6.



Figure 6.  Dr. Mary Mcleod Bethune Park - Mayesville, S.C.

Photo courtesy of Darlington County Historical Museum of Ethnic Culture.



   In closing, one of my favorite quotes of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune is the following - "There are no menial jobs just menial souls."


*  For more information on the National Council of Negro Women, [click here]



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Subject:  The fight for freedom resumes for millions of formerly enslaved people of South Carolina in 1865'.


Free at last, but not for long. Written by Michael Trinkley of the Chicora Foundation


Freedom lost: The Constitution of 1865.


  After the Civil War, white South Carolinians moved quickly to eliminate black people's newfound freedom. They wanted to return blacks, in effect, to their prewar status as slaves. Thus, for most African-Americans, the days of celebration were few. Within months of the Confederacy's defeat, South Carolina had adopted a new constitution. This constitution was riddled with Black Codes, or what later became known as the laws of Jim Crow.


  In the summer of 1865 President Andrew Johnson, who had succeeded Lincoln, ordered that lands under federal control be returned to their previous white owners. Many African-Americans found themselves forcibly evicted from lands they had been told were theirs forever. They had no choice but to work as laborers on white-owned plantations. There was a deep sense of betrayal which lasted throughout Reconstruction Period and beyond.


 In addition, South Carolina's constitution of 1865 failed to grant African-Americans the right to vote, and it retained racial qualifications for the legislature. The tone of the 1865 Constitution was set by Governor B.F. Perry, figure 7,  To extend this universal suffrage to the "freedmen" in their present ignorant and degraded condition, would be little less than folly and madness ... [because] this is a white man's government, and intended for white men only.



Figure 7.  S.C. Governor Benjamin F. Perry.


  This constitution created the climate necessary for the enactment of Black Codes in South Carolina. These laws sought to recapture the power of the white master over African-Americans, thus, denying them social and political equality. For example, the Black Codes mandated the following:


*  "No person of color shall migrate into and reside in this state, unless, within twenty days after his arrival within the same, he shall enter into a bond with two      freeholders as sureties"


* "Servants shall not be absent from the premises without the permission of the master"


*  Servants must assist their masters "in the defense of his own person, family, premises, or property"


*  No person of color could become an artisan, mechanic, or shopkeeper unless he obtained a license from the judge  of the district court – a license that could cost     $100 or more.










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Freedom Regained: The Constitution of 1868.


  At the national level, President Johnson vetoed two bills – one extending the life of the Freedmen's Bureau and one (called the Civil Rights Bill of 1866) spelling out the rights any citizen of the United States was to enjoy, without regard to race. Fortunately both bills were passed over Johnson's vetoes. Moreover, Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment, which broadened the federal government's power to protect the rights of American citizens. While this amendment included many provisions, the most important was that it made the federal government – not the individual states – the protector of citizens' rights.


  In 1867’ Congress also passed, again over Johnson's veto, the Reconstruction Acts, which divided the South into five military districts and called for the creation of new governments which allowed blacks the right to vote. Only after the new governments ratified the Fourteenth Amendment would the Southern states be readmitted to the Union.


  In South Carolina, the development of a new constitution in 1868’ was an extraordinary departure from the past. Blacks comprised 71 to 76 of the 124 members. An observer from the New York Times commented:   The colored men in the Convention possess by long odds the largest share of mental calibre. They are all the best debaters; some of them are peculiarly apt in raising and sustaining points of order; there is a homely but strong grasp of common sense in what they say, and although the mistakes made are frequent and ludicrous, the South Carolinians are not slow to acknowledge that their destinies really appear to be safer in the hands of these unlettered Ethiopians than they would be if confided to the more unscrupulous care of the white men in the body.


The resulting 1868' South Carolina constitution:


*  Established a balanced, tripartite form of government for the first time in South Carolina's history


*  Established comprehensive local governments, replacing the patchwork of specialized commissions which handled everything from roads to welfare


*  Created a detailed Declaration of Rights which mandated political equality regardless of race


*  Mandated state-wide public education for the first time


*   Established a welfare program for the poor, aged, and disabled that was channeled through county governments


*  Removed the requirement of owning property in order to vote.  To learn more of the national sponsors of the Constitutions of 1865' and 1868', [click here].


  The following four (4) men from Darlington County were delegates to the S.C. Constitutional Convention of 1868' in Charleston, S.C. instrumental in aligning the former constitution with universal acceptance for all citizens of S.C. and their signature is a testament to their literacy:


Isaac Peter Brockenton,.D.D.:  Born May 19, 1828 into slavery in Sumter District, present day Lee County, Isaac P. Brockenton was brought, with other members of his family, to Darlington County  prior to the Civil War, where he continued his formal education. Upon receiving his freedom, he continued his follow-on education at Richmond Theological Seminary.  Upon completion of his studies, he returned to the town of Darlington where he became founder, organizer, and first minister of Macedonia Baptist Church in the years between 1866 and 1868.  He was a member of Darlington County's Delegation to the 1868' Constitution Convention. He was the founder of the Negro Baptist Convention of S.C. for which he served as president of the body for 40-years.  He served as moderator for the Pee Dee Baptist Association and Board of Trustees Member for Benedict College in Columbia and Morris College in Sumter.  Dr. Brockenton also served as magistrate of the town of Darlington.  Lastly, he had a school named in his honor, Brockington Elementary School, in the town of Darlington which is attributed to his life’s devotion to education of himself and his people.  Dr. I.P. Brockenton, figure 8, died on January 6, 1908.  He was married to the former Martha Jackson and was survived by several children.













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Figure 8. Dr. Isaac P. Brockenton.



Figure 9.  I.P. Brockenton Pay Stub – 1868’ S.C. Constitution Convention Pay Stub.






Figure  10.  Dr. Isaac P. Brockenton 's Signature.








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Jordan Lang:  Jordan Lang was born in Kershaw District into slavery as the property of the Lang Family in 1813'.  He was a brick mason by trade which he used to purchase his freedom, and subsequently, moved to present day Darlington County by 1846'.  He was a member of Darlington County's Delegation to the 1868' Constitution Convention and afterward served as a Representative from 1868-1872.  He had a large farm in the High Hill Township in Darlington County with a homestead of 140 acres, surveyed in 1879’, near present day S.C. 341.  Lang Township was named in his honor during the reconstruction period, present day Palmetto District, as well as a school in said township.   Mr. Lang was married to the former Kizzie Keith and they had 10 children. He died in Darlington County on March 9, 1893.




Figure 11. Jordan Lang – 1868’ S.C. Constitution Convention Pay Stub.






Figure  12.  Jordan Lang's Signature















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Richard Humbert: Born in 1835’ in Savannah, Georgia, Richard Humbert was a carpenter by trade which found him at his stead until commencement of the war which he served obtaining the rank of sergeant. Upon completion of the war, he became a merchant, an attorney, and minister. He was a member of Darlington County's Delegation to the 1868' Constitution Convention, and afterward, served as a Representative from 1870’-1876’.  Mr. Humbert, designated as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Eighth Regiment was most notably known for his leadership in creating the state militia during the reconstruction-era within our region for protection of freedmen and republican politicians from reprisal from the KKK, the Red Shirts, or their sympathizers.  He was married to Lavinia and they had four children; Catherina, Frony, William, Lizzie. 




Figure 13. Richard Humbert – 1868’ S.C. Constitution Convention Pay Stub.






Figure 14.  Richard Humbert's Signature.












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Benjamin F. Whittemore: Benjamin Franklin Whittemore, May 18, 1824 – January 25, 1894, was a U.S. Representative from South Carolina.


BiographyBorn in Malden, Massachusetts, Whittemore attended the public schools of Worcester, and received an academic education at Amherst College. He engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1859.  After studying theology, he became a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church of the New England Conference in 1859.


Career.   During the Civil War, Whittemore served as chaplain of the Fifty-third Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, and later with the Thirtieth Regiment, Veteran Volunteers. After the war was over, he settled in Darlington, South Carolina. He served as delegate to the State Constitutional Convention in 1868 and was elected president of the Republican State executive board in 1868.  *Whittemore was also appointed Superintendent of Education for the Military District of Eastern South Carolina during his tenure as servant to the state.


  He founded the New Era Publication in Darlington. He was elected to the State senate in 1868, but resigned before the session to take a seat in Congress. He served as delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1868. Upon the readmission of South Carolina to the Union, Whittemore was elected as a Republican to the Fortieth and Forty-first Congresses and served from July 18, 1868, to February 24, 1870. He resigned, pending the investigation of his conduct in connection with certain appointments to the United States Military and Naval Academies. He was censured by the House of Representatives on February 24, 1870, following his resignation. He presented credentials of a second election to the same Congress on June 18, 1870, but the House declined to allow him to take his seat.


  During increasing violence by Red Shirts, paramilitary insurgents who worked to suppress black voting, on November 22, 1870 Whittemore was elected to the State Senate.  He served until 1877, when he resigned.  Democrats had regained power in the state legislature and began to pass laws to restrict voter registration and reduce the civil rights of freedmen.  Whittemore returned to Massachusetts, settling in Woburn where he became a publisher. He died in Montvale, Massachusetts, on January 25, 1894. He was interred in the Salem Street Cemetery, Woburn. 



Figure 15. Senator Benjamin F. Whittemore.



Figure 16.  Benjamin F. Whittemore 's Signature.





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40 acres and a Mule  - Field Order 15 - Part 1 by Heather Gray.  Most of my professional career has been devoted to cooperative economic development and issues relevant to Black farmers in the southern United States. Doing this work you cannot help but become ensconced in the history of slavery, the Civil War and its consequences. In this instance, knowing the actions and attitudes of General William Tecomseh Sherman (left) is essential, albeit with his occasional condescending statements coupled with some understanding and seeming generosity (a general's mindset some have noted). 


  In fact, it was Sherman and Lincoln's Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, who initiated the concept of the "40 acres" for freed slaves after listening to the demands of the freedmen.  As Sherman marched through Georgia toward Savannah from November 15 to December 21, 1864, slaves left the Georgia plantations to follow him. Once in Savannah, Sherman realized he had to do something about the Black folks who had followed him so he and Stanton called for a meeting with Black elders to ask what they wanted.


 "Forty Acres and a Mule"? In summary, the Black attendees in this historic meeting told Stanton and Sherman that they wanted land to grow food and a community of their own to develop. Sherman responded with the famous "Field Order 15." In the "Order" Sherman provided 40 acres for families in the abandoned land along the South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida "low country." Sherman also ultimately offered Army mules that might be available - thus the, "Forty Acres and a Mule". As a result, untold numbers of the Black families almost immediately moved into the lowlands.



Figure 17.  Field Order 15 Historical Marker.

Courtesy of the Ga. Historical Society, the Ga. Battlefields Associations, and

the Ga. Department of Economic Development


 Then on April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated, Andrew Johnson becomes president and not long after he rescinds Field Order 15. The devastation and betrayal was immense. Johnson states ultimately that he is giving the land back to the white owners and blacks will need to work for the white owners.





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 However, for "Part One" about "Forty Acres and a Mule" I want to share the following: 


  As stated in Sherman's memoir, it is important to note that President Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, traveled to Savannah that included this historic meeting with the Freedmen. Sherman notes Stanton's desire to "confer" with the "negroes."


 General Sherman's archived minutes of this historic meeting in Savannah also includes the names and description of the Black leaders who participated in the meeting as well as the questions from Stanton of the Black leaders and the answers given by Reverend Frazier, who was selected by the group to serve as their spokesperson.


  For more on Forty Acres and a Mule  - Part I, [click here] and scroll down.


Second Anniversary of the Mother Emanuel 9 Massacre.  On June 17, 2017, Charleston, the state of S.C., and America commemorated the second Anniversary of the assassination of Senator and Pastor of Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, Clementa Pinckney, and eight other parishoners whom perished at the hand of assassin Dylan Roof.  The detestable and senseless murder of nine parishioners at Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, S.C. on June 17, 2015, sought to engender a race war which did not happen because Charleston, the state of S.C., and America sought LOVE and not hate, Community and not division, Hope, and not dispair.  Ironically, on August 11, 2017, at an Alt-Right Rally protesting the removal of Confederate Statue of Robert E. Lee, resulted in the death of Heather Heyer, figure 19, while counter-protesting in Charlotteville, Va.  Our heartfelt condolences go out to both Emanuel AME Church Family and Heather Heyer's Family.


Figure 18.  Mother Emanuel 9 Matyrs.




Figure 19.  Matyr Heather Heyer.




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S.C. Supreme Court sides with plaintiffs against State of S.C. in Corridor of Shame School Case.  The state's top court supported plaintiffs claim that the S.C. General Assembly had failed to provide adequate and commensurate funding for 36 poor school districts after a 21-year case; Abbeville County School District v. The State of South Carolina, highlighted inequalities in funding, which did not coincide with the state’s constitution of minimally adequate education. Thus, bringing to light once again, the I-95 Corridor of Shame.  The 2015' ruling coincided with our state and country’s initial case on school funding inadequacy, Briggs v. Elliott, of Clarendon County.  It should be noted that Clarendon County is in the Corridor of Shame, figure 20.  This seminal case was one of five cases used to formulate Brown v. Board of Education outlawing segregated educational institutions and practices in America in 1955'.  


Economics, Lack of Will, or BothDuring the early part of Governor Haley’s first tenure, studies were performed by State Universities, such as Francis Marion University and South Carolina State University, to determine what measures could be taken to bring economic growth to the I-95 Corridor. The studies’ findings and recommendations have yet to be revealed.



Figure 20. SC's Corridor of Shame - Counties.



Other Resources:


* Testimony of a Former Corridor of Shame Student attending Duke University, [click here].


*  Corridor of Shame Website, [Click here].


*  What Can I Do?, [Click here].


*  S.C. is not the only southern state with a Corridor of Shame by the Southern Poverty Law Center, [click here].








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   44th Anniversary Director's Funding Drive.  To learn just a few facts about our non-profit, click here.



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